Changing the partition layout of your VPS after installation

Sometimes, it is necessary to change your partition layout in order to create new partitions or extend an existing partition, for example after a VPS upgrade.

This tutorial shows how to easily change your partition layout on your VPS.

Please be advised to perform a backup of all important data before proceeding ! Changes to the partition table always bear the risk of complete data loss.


Step 1:

Boot your VPS into the rescue-system, this can be done within your customer control panel.

You will need to connect through VNC.

After you have established a connection login as "root".

Step 2:

To perform changes on the partition easily we are going to use gparted.

If you want to boot your system straight up into your regular OS after repartitioning, you should execute "exitrescue" now on the commandline before proceeding.

To start the GUI type "startx" within your VNC console and wait a few seconds until the graphical interface appears.

On the upper left side you will see "Applications", open it and select "Run Program".
Now type "gparted" within the application finder and the app should start immediately.












Step 3:

You should find an overview of all existing partitions on your hard disk drive.
In case there is no unused space left,  we need to shrink one existing partition first, otherwise we will not be able to create a new one.

After a right click on the corresponding partition and choosing "Resize/Move", the partition can be either shrunk or extended.

Please note that LVM partitions (which are used with CentOS by default) cannot be shrunk!


In case you only wanted to extend your existing partition, please proceed with step 5.

Step 4:

Creating new partitions on the recently freed up/already free storage.

Perform a right click on the unallocated space and select "new" to create a new partition.

In this case I did it twice to create two additional partitions.


Step 5:

So far, no actual changes have been made on your hard drive. If you want to restart the partitioning just rerun the gparted tool.

To write the changes to the HDD hit the green tick symbol.
After hitting the tick, a warning will appear saying that you can lose all data - you should have a backup, so no worries.




The application should start performing several tasks, just wait until it has finished.

Depending on the size of the partition and the data stored on it, this will take its time.




Step 6:

You are done, just boot up your VPS into the regular OS  and check if everything is as expected:

root@contabo-test:~# fdisk -l



Step 1:

Connect to your server using RDP.

Step 2:

Open the "Disk Management", this can be done with a right click on the Windows Icon on the lower left side.
You could also start it by opening the "run" prompt, which can be done  via "Start" -> "Execute" -> "diskmgmt.msc", alternately the "Execute" dialogue can be opened by hitting "Windows-Logo-Key +R"

Step 3:

After the Windows "Disk Management" utility was started you will see an overview of all installed harddrives.
On a VPS you will usually have one drive, on a dedicated Server you will probably have more than one sparse disk.
Search for the disk you want to repartition and perform a right click on the partition you want to resize.

You can shrink and also extend a Volume, sometimes when upgrading your VPS to a bigger plan you can either create a second partition or just extend the existing partition.

For now we want to shrink the existing partition, so we hit "Shrink Volume".

Step 4:

After some time passed you will see a popup, just fill out the field with the amount of space you want to free up and hit "shrink".


After shrinking you will have unallocated space, now you are ready to create a new partition, e.g. a FAT32 filesystem etc.


Posted by: Gianni-Donato | Tagged as: , , , , , , , , No Comments

Mounting of additional hard disks in Linux

In this tutorial, we are going to mount an additional hard disk in Linux.

At first, we list all the disks recognized by our system using the fdisk command:

fdisk -l


In our example, two hard drives are plugged into our server: /dev/sda, our system disk which amongst other things contains the operating system, and /dev/sdb, an additional 50 GiB hard drive which we are about to mount in our system. The naming of those disks can vary.

First of all, we need to create a partition as well as a partition table. Of course, it is possible to create more than one partition on a disk, but in our example, we want to use the whole capacity of the drive for one partition. For the partitioning we use cfdisk, the graphical version of fdisk:

cfdisk /dev/sdb

If there is no existing partition table on the disk, yet, a menu pops up:

For our example, we choose dos, which writes a MBR partition table to the disk (for disks larger than 2 TB, we would choose GPT, otherwise we would not be able to make use of the entire available disk space). After that, the main menu of cfdisk opens:


Here we can create our partition(s). We create a 50 GiB partition by entering 50G and confirming with the Enter-Key.


In the next dialogue, we choose primary to create a primary partition.

We confirm with Write and type in yes to finish creating the partition.

Now we have a partition, but we cannot store data on it yet, as we still need to create a file system on it. We choose Quit to leave cfdisk and check if the partition has been created properly. To do so, we once again use fdisk:

fdisk -l


Our new partition is now listed as /dev/sdb1. Thus, everything went as expected.
Now, we're going to format the partition with a file system. In Linux, we choose ext4 by default.

mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1


The formatting is now finished and the hard disk is now prepared for utilisation. Next, we create a folder in which we mount the partition. All data we move or create in this folder after the whole procedure will be stored on our new hard drive. In our example, we use the name datastore for our folder, but of course you are free to choose any name you like. With the following command, we create the new folder:

mkdir /datastore

In order to mount the partition in the folder we just created, we type the following in our command line:

mount /dev/sdb1 /datastore

Our partition is now mounted in /datastore. In order to automatically mount the partition after a reboot, we add a line in the configuration file /etc/fstab. But before we do so, we need to find out the UUID of our partition.

blkid /dev/sdb1


The part after "UUID=" is the UUID of our partition. We copy it (without the quotation marks) and open /etc/fstab in a text editor:

nano /etc/fstab

With the arrow keys, we navigate our cursor to the end of the file and paste the following line:

UUID=d6ae62ff-c9b7-4a07-aea8-a36f55c5036d       /datastore      ext4    defaults      0       0

Make sure to replace the UUID with your actual one.

Posted by: Florian | Tagged as: , , , No Comments

Upgrades: Reduced prices and new options!

A few days ago, we drastically reduced the prices of our dedicated servers and virtual servers to provide even more powerful hosting solutions at an unbeatable price.

The server upgrades are next in line. During the order process of a new server, our customers can upgrade the basic configuration of the server according to their wishes and requirements using our order configurator: An additional hard disk is required for the server? No problem! This hard disk should complement the one that is equipped by default and should run in a RAID-array including a hardware RAID-controller? One more click and this configuration is saved as well.

These and many other options are now available at an even lower price than before. Besides the possibility to choose the server upgrades during the order process of a new server, all of these improvements are of course also available for existing customers and already installed servers: A short email to support@contabo.com is sufficient and our support team will guide you through all further steps!

Listed below, you can find the upgrades we reduced the prices for:

  • + 400 GB hard disk: Now only 6.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • + 1000 GB hard disk: Now only 7.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • + 2000 GB hard disk: Now only 9.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • + 3000 GB hard disk: Now only 12.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • + Intel X25-M (Postville)-SSD 80 GB: Now only 11.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • + 256 GB SSD (Samsung 830): Now only 19.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • 1 Gbit/s-Port: Now only 39.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • Hardware-RAID 1: Now only 12.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • 100 Mbit/s bandwidth (24/7 guaranteed): Now only 79.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • KVM over IP: Now Now only 29.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • Backup space (available sizes: 50 - 250 - 500 - 1000 GB): Now only 3.99 - 11.99 - 19.99 - 31.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!

Beside that, we offer ready-to-use hard disk packages from now on which are most interesting especially for hosting resellers.
Each package consists of four hard disks of the same size and a hardware RAID-controller which can be configured in a RAID 5 or RAID 10 array according to your requirements.

Especially applications causing concurrent I/O-operations can take advantage of these packages: The hard disks are providing outstanding I/O-performance due to their RAID-configuration and are therefore providing a remarkably good read- and writespeed.
The usage of such compilations results in an enormous performance increase that should not be missed especially on servers that are used for virtualization projects.

And for those who consider this solution as not sufficient yet, we are now offering BBUs (battery units) which can be installed into the RAID-controller. Choosing this upgrade, you can enable the write-cache function on the RAID-controller to achieve an even better I/O-performance.

Listed below, you can find an overview of our speed-optimized hard disk packages:

  • 4 x 1 TB HDD 24/7, RAID 10 or 5: Only 54.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • 4 x 2 TB HDD 24/7, RAID 10 or 5: Only 69.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • 4 x 3 TB HDD 24/7, RAID 10 or 5: Only 84.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!
  • BBU to enable write-cache: Only 29.99 EUR / month. No setup fee!

Our support-team will gladly assist you if you have any requests regarding server upgrades or any other product!


♡ ★ ♡ December 19th ♡ ★ ♡

HDDAlready opened the 19th door? If not, we are going to reveal it here, exceptionally 🙂

More Features! 1 additional HDD with 1 TB for every Dedicated Server orderd (contract period 12 months).

This upgrade has a value of 79.99 EUR and is, thanks to our Advent calendar, completely free of charge. It will add an additional 1000 GB brand name hard disk (S-ATA disk) to your server.

Posted by: Katharina | Tagged as: , , , , No Comments