21Oct/160

Ubuntu 16.10 available now!

We offer you the latest Linux distribution Ubuntu 16.10 for free for all your VPS and Dedicated Servers! You can combine it with Software RAID 1, Webmin, LAMP and Webmin+LAMP. Important to know: In contrast to Ubuntu 16.04, there is no long term support (LTS) for Ubuntu 16.10.

New features include, among others, a revised low graphics mode which requires less hardware resources and new editions of Firefox and LibreOffice. In addition, Ubuntu 16.10 supports Kernel 4.8.

You can select Ubuntu 16.10 among several other Linux distributions (and Windows Server 2008 / 2012) when you define your individual configuration by clicking on "Customize & Order" on our VPS and dedicated servers overview sites!

As an existing customer, you can upgrade through our Control Panel easily!

Further information can be found on our website!

Posted by: Markus | Tagged as: , , , No Comments
8Sep/160

Comparison of the different Linux distributions available at Contabo

As a valued customer of Contabo you have access to a variety of different Linux distributions, for use on all of our servers. These can be easily and automatically installed via our powerful customer control panel, which results in various benefits for our customers:

- Contabo always provides the latest versions for installation on all servers.

- You can conveniently and comfortably choose and switch between the offered Linux distributions at any time.

- All Linux distributions are offered free of any costs or fees.

- From the beginner towards the enthusiast, up to commercial professional use, all requirements can be met with the distributions offered by Contabo.

CentOS:

CentOS (Community Enterprise Operating System) is a Linux distribution based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). It is maintained by an open group of voluntary developers, which take care of maintenance and development. As opposed to RHEL, you can use this operating system without mandatory support contracts and free of charge.

WHMs cPanel is developed for this operating system in particular, which makes this Linux distribution a must have for resellers. As an enterprise operating system it is developed with stability and long-term maintenance cycles in mind. All CentOS versions can be used for 10 years without the need to migrate packages and software versions, which makes it an ideal solution for commercial use.

https://www.centos.org/

Debian:

Debian is another Linux distribution that is composed completely of free software, most of which is under the GNU General Public License.

Long term support was first introduced with version 7 for almost all available software packages that use the architectures i386 and AMD64 (32bit- and 64bit-PC-systems). The Debian Project aims to provide 5 years long-term support with security and bug fixes for all versions from 7 upwards. This Linux distribution has access to online repositories that contain over 50,000 software packages, making it one of the largest software compilations available. Debian officially contains only free software, but non-free software can be downloaded and installed as well if needed. This makes it a valid solution for commercial use, as well as a versatile operating system for the regular user.

https://www.debian.org/

Ubuntu:

Ubuntu is a Linux distribution that is strongly based on and influenced by Debian. The goal of the developers was to create an operating system that is as easy to use as possible. It is one of the most commonly used distributions available today. The development team also releases long term support versions of Ubuntu, which are indicated by “LTS” at the end of the version number.

http://www.ubuntu.com/

OpenSUSE:

The focus of its development is creating usable open source tools for developers and administrators, while providing a user friendly desktop and server environment. A unique feature of this distribution is its specialized installation and configuration tool YaST (“Yet another Setup Tool“), which is a central administrative tool for the OpenSUSE operating system. It also helps finding new software and packages for the OpenSUSE distribution.

https://en.opensuse.org/Main_Page

Fedora:

Compared to other Linux distributions, Fedora does not aim for long term support. The life cycle of a Fedora version is 13 months only. Every 6 months a new version is released by the development team. Owing to this circumstance, Fedora is not suited for long-term usage on systems.

On the other hand, you have always access to the latest software developments available. Being state of the art has never been this comfortable. Enthusiasts that are eager to try out the latest developments on the market should always consider using Fedora.

https://getfedora.org/en/

Posted by: Philipp | Tagged as: , , , , , , No Comments
26Apr/160

Ubuntu 16.04 available now!

ubuntu-1604-ltsAs of now we offer you the latest Linux distribution Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus) as a free operating system for all of our VPS and dedicated servers. You may combine it with the Software RAID 1, Webmin, LAMP as well as Webmin + LAMP.

Since PLESK does not yet offer a version which is compatible to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS, we still provide Ubuntu 14.04 LTS to you as well.

Here are some of the key features of the new version:

  • Kernel 4.4.6
  • Support of the file system ZFS
  • Python 3, PHP 7 and MySQL 5.7

You can select Ubuntu among several other Linux distributions (and Windows Server 2008 / 2012) when you select your individual configuration by clicking on "Customize & Order" on our VPS and dedicated servers overview sites.

Further information can be found on our website!

13Jul/151

Configuring additional IP addresses

Upon ordering a Dedicated Server or VPS you will receive one IPv4 address and one /64 IPv6 subnet. As an example, this could be the IPv4 address 192.51.100.10 and the IPv6 subnet 2001:0db8:2a02:c200::/64.

Your server comes pre-configured with this IPv4 (192.51.100.10) and one IPv6 address (2001:0db8:2a02:c200:0000:0000:0000:0001). Additional IPv4 addresses can be ordered by contacting us at support@contabo.com or through our homepage when placing an order for a new server. These additional IPv4 address will not be added to your system automatically but will have to be configured manually.

The following will give an overview on how to configure additional IP addresses on the most popular operating systems. The server used in these examples has the primary IPv4 address 192.51.100.10 and will receive the additional IPv4 addresses 192.51.100.42 and 192.0.2.23. As a general rule we recommend configuring these addresses with a netmask of 255.255.255.255 (/32) and /64 respectively and without adding a new gateway.

CentOS 6.x

CentOS has all its network interface configuration files stored in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/. In order to configure additional IPv4 addresses, one virtual interface per additional IPv4 address has to be created. If the main interface is e.g. eth0, the virtual interfaces would be named eth0:0, eth0:1, eth0:2 and so on. Their configurations reside in individual configuration files named ifcfg-eth0:0, ifcfg-eth0:1, ifcfg-eth0:2 receptively.

#/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0:0
DEVICE=eth0:0
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.51.100.42
NETMASK=255.255.255.255

#/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0:1
DEVICE=eth0:1
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.0.2.23
NETMASK=255.255.255.255

Additional IPv6 addresses can be specified using the variable IPV6ADDR_SECONDARIES in the interface's primary configuration file (/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 in case of eth0). Multiple addresses are separated by a white space:

#/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
...
IPV6ADDR_SECONDARIES=2001:0db8:2a02:c200:0000:0000:0000:0002/64 2001:0db8:2a02:c200:0000:0000:0000:0003/64
...

CentOS 7.x / Fedora

The network interface configuration files of both CentOS 7.x and Fedora are stored under /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/. Additional IPv4 addresses can be added to the respective interface's configuration file by using variables of the pattern IPADDR0, IPADDR1, IPADDR2 and PREFIX0, PREFIX1, PREFIX2 etc., in case of e.g. eth0 this would be /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0:

#/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
...
IPADDR0=192.51.100.42
PREFIX0=32
IPADDR1=192.0.2.23
PREFIX1=32
...

The old method using virtual interfaces as employed in CentOS 6.x and described above will also still work.

Additional IPv6 addresses can be specified using the variable IPV6ADDR_SECONDARIES in the interface's primary configuration file (/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 in case of eth0). Multiple addresses are separated by a white space:

#/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
...
IPV6ADDR_SECONDARIES=2001:0db8:2a02:c200:0000:0000:0000:0002/64 2001:0db8:2a02:c200:0000:0000:0000:0003/64
...

Debian / Ubuntu

Debian's and Ubuntu's network interface configuration is stored in /etc/network/interfaces. Additional IP addresses can be assigned by using the up/down commands. The following adds 192.51.100.42 and 192.0.2.23 to eth0 whose primary address is 192.51.100.10:

#/etc/network/interfaces
auto eth0
allow-hotplug eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.51.100.10
netmask 255.255.255.255
gateway 192.51.100.1

up ip addr add 192.51.100.42/32 dev eth0
down ip addr del 192.51.100.42/32 dev eth0

up ip addr add 192.0.2.23/32 dev eth0
down ip addr del 192.0.2.23/32 dev eth0
...

Additional IPv6 addresses are configured similarly:

#/etc/network/interfaces
...
iface eth0 inet6 static
address 2001:0db8:2a02:c200:0123:4567:89ab:0001
netmask 112
gateway fe80::1
accept_ra 0
autoconf 0
privext 0


up ip -6 addr add 2001:0db8:2a02:c200:0000:0000:0000:0002/64 dev eth0
down ip -6 addr del 2001:0db8:2a02:c200:0000:0000:0000:0002/64 dev eth0
...

openSUSE

openSUSE has its network interface configuration files stored under /etc/sysconfig/network/. All settings concerning e.g. eth0 are saved in ifcfg-eth0, additional IPv4 and IPv6 addresses can be added using the pattern IPADDR_1, IPADDR_2, IPADDR_3 etc:

#/etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-eth0
...
IPADDR_1='192.51.100.42/32'
IPADDR_2='192.0.2.23/32'
IPADDR_3='2001:0db8:2a02:c200:0000:0000:0000:0002/64'
IPADDR_4='2001:0db8:2a02:c200:0000:0000:0000:0003/64'
...

Windows Server 2008, 2012 and 2016

Open the "Network and Sharing Center" and click on "Local Area Connection".

In Windows Server 2016:  Open the "Network and Sharing Center" and click on "Ethernet".

ws2008_01

In the newly opened windows, click on "Properties".

ws2008_02

If you want to add an additional IPv4 address, select "Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)" and click on "Properties".

ws2008_03

In the newly created windows, click on "Advanced..." and in the following one on "Add..." under "IP addresses"

ws2008_05

Enter the new IP address and its netmask into the dialog and then click "Add".

ws2008_06

The new IP address is now active.

ws2008_07

IPv6 addresses can be added similarly by selecting "Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6)":

ws2008_08

ws2008_09

ws2008_12

ws2008_13

Posted by: Andreas | Tagged as: , , , , , , 1 Comment
4Jul/150

Creating static routes

All traffic in our network has to pass through our core-routers, additionally switch ports are configured in such a way that they only accept ethernet frames with mac addresses originating from these routers. Consequently, no layer-2 traffic is forwarded between switch ports and direct communication between servers, even when on the same subnet, is not possible. If you have multiple servers with us which use IPv4 addresses from the same subnet (usually /24), and you want these servers to exchange traffic between each other, you will have to create static routes on these servers to each other.

The following examples assume that the server with the IPv4 address 192.51.100.10 and the server with the IPv4 address 192.51.100.42 want to communicate with each other.

CentOS

In CentOS, you can add static routes to the route-file of the respective interface. In case of eth0, the file is called route-eth0 and located under /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/. The below entry on server 192.51.100.10 adds a static to server 192.51.100.42:

#/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth0
...
192.51.100.42/32 via 192.51.100.1 dev eth0

Vice versa, the server 192.51.100.42 needs a corresponding route to server 192.51.100.10:

#/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth0
...
192.51.100.10/32 via 192.51.100.1 dev eth0

Alternatively, both servers can have a single route added to the whole /24 subnet:

#/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth0
...
192.51.100.0/24 via 192.51.100.1 dev eth0

Debian / Ubuntu

Static routes in Debian and Ubuntu are saved to /etc/network/interfaces. Entries are added to the end of the file or under the iface sections of the respective interface. Assuming the interface to be eth0, the entry on server 192.51.100.10 would look like this:

#/etc/network/interfaces
...
up ip route add 192.51.100.42/32 via 192.51.100.1 dev eth0
down ip route del 192.51.100.42/32 via 192.51.100.1 dev eth0

On server 192.51.100.42, this would be the static route to 192.51.100.10:

#/etc/network/interfaces
...
up ip route add 192.51.100.10/32 via 192.51.100.1 dev eth0
down ip route del 192.51.100.10/32 via 192.51.100.1 dev eth0

It is also possible to add a static route to the whole /24 on both servers instead:

#/etc/network/interfaces
...
up ip route add 192.51.100.0/24 via 192.51.100.1 dev eth0
down ip route del 192.51.100.0/24 via 192.51.100.1 dev eth0

openSUSE

Static routes in openSUSE can be set in /etc/sysconfig/network/routes. On server 192.51.100.10, the static route to 192.51.100.42 is as follows:

#/etc/sysconfig/network/routes
...
192.51.100.42/32 192.51.100.1 - eth0

Conversely, the static route on 192.51.100.42 to 192.51.100.10:

#/etc/sysconfig/network/routes
...
192.51.100.10/32 192.51.100.1 - eth0

As an alternative, both servers can have a static route to the whole /24 subnet:

#/etc/sysconfig/network/routes
...
192.51.100.0/24 192.51.100.1 - eth0

Windows Server

To create a static route under Windows Server 2008 or 2012, please open the "Command Prompt" with administrative privileges. On server 192.51.100.10 enter the following:

route -p add 192.51.100.42 mask 255.255.255.255 192.51.100.1

The corresponding entry on server 192.51.100.42 is:

route -p add 192.51.100.10 mask 255.255.255.255 192.51.100.1

Setting the -p option makes the route persistent across reboots. If the route is meant to be temporary, you may omit -p.

Posted by: Andreas | Tagged as: , , , , No Comments
21Oct/130

Ubuntu 13.10 available

Ubuntu logoSince today you are free to install Ubuntu 13.10 on your VPS or Dedicated Server by using our Customer Control Panel. The main focus on this release was set on improvements for mobile devices. For server environments, it offers the Kernel 3.11 and updated packages.

More information can be found here:

DistroWatch - Ubuntu

Posted by: Paul | Tagged as: , , No Comments
2May/103

Ubuntu 10.04 available

Only 4 days after the release of the new Ubuntu version 10.04  (codename: Lucid Lynx) we have updated our systems to install the new version on our servers. The new version is an LTS-version (Long-Time-Support). This means, that Ubuntu will extend the support time and provide updates for a longer time.

Many interesting changes have been included since the last LTS-release. Some of them are:
- upgrade to Linux Kernel 2.6.32
- ext4 as default filesystem
- grub2 as bootloader

You can find more information about the changes in the official release notes.

Once of the most surprising features is, that Ubuntu 10.04 is booting up very fast. I've measured the time with my cell phone and a Dedicated Server Core i7. The stopwatch was started after the BIOS POST was finished and I was surprised ... It takes less than 15 seconds until the boot up process was completed.

We have tested the upgrade by running "apt-get dist-upgrade". Although, we can not recommend upgrading your system this way, because the test system became very slow after the upgrade. After a new installation with the latest version the same system was faster then ever before. Thus, if you want to upgrade your installation you should reinstall your server. Customers, using our ASI system can use it for the reinstallation. All other customers can request a reinstallation at our support. For new customers, be informed that we will add version 10.04 of Ubuntu to our server-configurator, the next days. If you can't wait, just leave a note at the suggestions field below the customer's personal information.

Posted by: RobertW | Tagged as: , , , , 3 Comments