19Jul/170

Analysing log files in Windows and Linux

Everyone knows the scenario, you want to analyze an issue of your server or local computer but where to find all those log files?

In the following tutorial we are going to analyze specific log files in Linux and logs in the Windows Event Viewer. An additional chapter will go through the log analysis via Systemd.

Linux log files

Unfortunately, it is quite different from distribution to distribution, which information can be extracted from specific log files. In the following we will analyze the log file structure of Debian 8 and CentOS 7.2. The first location to look for log files should always be /var/log/. Depending on their configuration, Apache, Nginx or similar applications write log files to this folder too. System log specifications and locations can be found in the file /etc/rsyslog.conf.

Debian 8:

  • /var/log/auth.log

Logs of successful and failed authentications to your system can be found in this log file. It is also logged when a user invokes commands via sudo.

  • /var/log/messages

This file contains log entries of general system information, amongst others, you will also find the system upstart logs.

  • /var/log/dmesg or dmesg

The kernel ring buffer can be read with dmesg. You will find information about the system upstart, runtime kernel module messages and many further messages according to the hard and software of your system. By default, dmesg shows the full ring buffer. However, the output can be customized by adding specific parameters. A thorough documentation can be found on the manual page (man dmesg).

  • /var/log/syslog

This is one of the most important log files in general. Every Linux process is free to log to the syslog by implementing the syslog interface. It also logs the system upstart and executed cron-jobs.

CentOS 7.2:

As the log file structure is quite similar to the one of Debian 8, we will just mention the differences.

  • /var/log/secure

This log file is the equivalent to /var/log/auth.log in Debian systems. All kind of authentications are logged here.

  • /var/log/messages

There is no separation of /var/log/messages and /var/log/syslog in CentOS, all system logs of processes which implement the syslog interface can be found here.

  • /var/log/cron

Cron specific log files are not part of the syslog as in Debian. They can be found in the above mentioned file.

 

Log analysis via Systemd

Systemd is basically the standard Init system of nearly all major Linux distributions today. Since at least April 2015, when Debian and Ubuntu switched to Systemd, every Linux administrator or user has been in touch with Systemd. As Systemd is a complex system, we will only take a look into the log analysis functionality provided. Every process in Systemd is identified as a unit. All active units can be shown via the following command:

systemctl list-units

When appending the parameter --all, this command also shows all inactive units.

Logs being created by Systemd are managed in the so called Journal. These logs can be accessed via the journalctl binary. If journalctl is called without any parameter, it will print out the whole Journal. However, it is also possible to output the log entries of specific units only. In the following example, we are going to analyze the log files of the Apache web server.

journalctl -u httpd

It is also possible to restrict the output with the parameters --since and --until.

journalctl -u httpd --since "2016-11-01 20:00:00" --until "2016-11-03 20:00:00"

The above command will output the Apache log entries between 2016-11-01 20:00:00 and 2016-11-03 20:00:00. It is also possible to use keywords like "today" or "yesterday".

You can also output the log files of more than one unit at the same time. In the following example we will output all Apache and Nginx log entries which have been logged since yesterday.

journalctl -u httpd -u nginx --since yesterday

If the parameter -f is used, all desired log entries are shown in real time.

The above was only a slight view into the possibilities of journalctl, there are several other useful features which are described on the manual page (man journalctl).

 

Log analysis via Windows Event Viewer

Windows Event Viewer Overview

In the above picture in the left navigation you can see the entry "Windows Logs". The following entries are most important.

  • Application

This entry will show the events of locally installed applications.

  • Security

Here you can see successful and failed login attempts.

  • System

This entry logs operating system internal events and errors.

Via the entry "Custom Views" -> "Server Roles" -> "Remote Desktop Services" you can see RDP related events and errors.

Potential hardware issues can be identified via "Application and Service Logs" -> "Hardware Events".

Useful for error analysis can also be the overview which can be seen via "Overview and Summary" -> "Summary of Administrative Events", it provides a summarized overview of the system status in general.

2Mar/172

Changing the Windows Administrator password – The easy way

Today we are going to show you how to change your Windows Administrator password the easy way.
This tutorial works with almost all Windows versions starting from Windows XP/NT (Windows Server 2003).
On Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016 you should make sure that you are using local user accounts - not any online accounts.

Start the CMD.exe with administrator privileges, e.g. "Windowsbutton +R" and type in CMD.exe

cmd_en

The CMD.exe application should now pop up soon, the syntax for changing the password is very simple:

net user <username of the account you want to change the password> <new password>

Example :

net user administrator SomesecurePW2016

Of course you should never use this as a password, nor should you ever use it only for "testing" purpose.

Another option would be to use "*", this will prompt you to enter a password. On a desktop Windows operating system like Windows 10, you could remove the password by just entering an empty value.

pw_en

Posted by: Gianni-Donato | Tagged as: , , , , 2 Comments
8Jul/161

Proxmox 4.0 and CentOS 7.2 available now!

We are happy to offer you further upgrades for our operating systems:

CentOS 7.2 is available now, replacing the version 7.1!
You may combine it with Software RAID 1, Webmin, LAMP, Webmin+LAMP, Plesk and cPanel. Plus, the installation via VNC is possible!

Also, Proxmox is available now in version 4.0, replacing 3.2. It is not an independent operating system but you may select it as a panel for Debian 8.

Please note: Proxmox is only available for our dedicated servers!

Proxmox4Proxmox 4

We offer you a wide range of Linux distributions (as well as Windows Server 2008/2012). Just click on "Customize & Order" on our VPS and dedicated servers overview sites and choose the operating system that fits your needs!

Further information can be found on our website!

Posted by: Markus | Tagged as: , , , , , 1 Comment
24May/160

Changing the partition layout of your VPS after installation

Sometimes, it is necessary to change your partition layout in order to create new partitions or extend an existing partition, for example after a VPS upgrade.

This tutorial shows how to easily change your partition layout on your VPS.

Please be advised to perform a backup of all important data before proceeding ! Changes to the partition table always bear the risk of complete data loss.

Linux


Step 1:

Boot your VPS into the rescue-system, this can be done within your customer control panel.

You will need to connect through VNC.

After you have established a connection login as "root".

Step 2:

To perform changes on the partition easily we are going to use gparted.

If you want to boot your system straight up into your regular OS after repartitioning, you should execute "exitrescue" now on the commandline before proceeding.

To start the GUI type "startx" within your VNC console and wait a few seconds until the graphical interface appears.

On the upper left side you will see "Applications", open it and select "Run Program".
Now type "gparted" within the application finder and the app should start immediately.

part1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Step 3:

You should find an overview of all existing partitions on your hard disk drive.
In case there is no unused space left,  we need to shrink one existing partition first, otherwise we will not be able to create a new one.

After a right click on the corresponding partition and choosing "Resize/Move", the partition can be either shrunk or extended.

Please note that LVM partitions (which are used with CentOS by default) cannot be shrunk!

part3

In case you only wanted to extend your existing partition, please proceed with step 5.

Step 4:

Creating new partitions on the recently freed up/already free storage.

part4
Perform a right click on the unallocated space and select "new" to create a new partition.

In this case I did it twice to create two additional partitions.

part5

Step 5:

So far, no actual changes have been made on your hard drive. If you want to restart the partitioning just rerun the gparted tool.

To write the changes to the HDD hit the green tick symbol.
After hitting the tick, a warning will appear saying that you can lose all data - you should have a backup, so no worries.

 

part6

 

The application should start performing several tasks, just wait until it has finished.

Depending on the size of the partition and the data stored on it, this will take its time.

 

part7

 

Step 6:

You are done, just boot up your VPS into the regular OS  and check if everything is as expected:

root@contabo-test:~# fdisk -l

 

Windows


Step 1:

Connect to your server using RDP.

Step 2:

Open the "Disk Management", this can be done with a right click on the Windows Icon on the lower left side.
You could also start it by opening the "run" prompt, which can be done  via "Start" -> "Execute" -> "diskmgmt.msc", alternately the "Execute" dialogue can be opened by hitting "Windows-Logo-Key +R"

winp1_en
Step 3:

After the Windows "Disk Management" utility was started you will see an overview of all installed harddrives.
On a VPS you will usually have one drive, on a dedicated Server you will probably have more than one sparse disk.
Search for the disk you want to repartition and perform a right click on the partition you want to resize.

You can shrink and also extend a Volume, sometimes when upgrading your VPS to a bigger plan you can either create a second partition or just extend the existing partition.

For now we want to shrink the existing partition, so we hit "Shrink Volume".

winp2_en
Step 4:

After some time passed you will see a popup, just fill out the field with the amount of space you want to free up and hit "shrink".

winp3_en

After shrinking you will have unallocated space, now you are ready to create a new partition, e.g. a FAT32 filesystem etc.

winp4_en

Posted by: Gianni-Donato | Tagged as: , , , , , , , , No Comments
18Dec/150

Edit Windows Updates in Windows 2008

The following tutorial will show you how you can check and administrate the Windows updates for your Windows Server 2008 system:

1. Please connect to your server using RDP and open the control panel, where you need to choose the section „System and Security“

WS Updates 2008 EN Bild 1

2. You will be forwarded to the following site, where you need to choose the option „Windows Update“:

WS Updates 2008 EN Bild 2

3. Subsequently you will be forwarded:

WS Updates 2008 EN Bild 3

You will have the choice between 'Check for updates', 'Change settings', 'View update history' and 'Restore hidden updates'. Additionally you have the option „Updates: frequently asked questions“, a help box will be opened if you select this one. By selecting the option „Check for updates“, an immediate search for new updates will be started.

4.1. If you choose the option „Check for updates“ Windows will automatically check whether there are updates which need to be installed on your server. If you want to change the settings of the Windows updates, please click the „Change settings“ button:

WS Updates 2008 EN Bild 4

4.2. If you click on the dropdown field „Install updates automatically (recommended)“ these options will appear:

WS Updates 2008 EN Bild 5

In general it is always recommended to install updates automatically (first option), since the security could be endangered otherwise, if you do not keep the Windows version updated. If you want to select the updates manually you need to choose the option „Download updates but let me choose whether to install them“. A similar option will be „Check for updates but let me choose whether to download and install them“, where you will have an overview of available updates and you can choose then if you want to download and install them“. On the other hand „Never check for updates (not recommended)“ is not recommended, since this could be dangerous for the security of your system if you do not keep it updated.

4.3. With the options „Recommended updates“ and „Who can install updates“ you will additionally have the possibility to get informed about any updates and which user can install the updates, if the account differs from the Administrator account.

5. If you choose the option „View update history“ you will get a list of all updates which have been intstalled on the server already:

 WS Updates 2008 EN Bild 6

If you wish to uninstall an update, you can choose the link „Installed Updates“. You will be forwarded to a list with installed updates and you can uninstall the updates.

If you ever experienced issues with updates, kindly choose the option „Troubleshoot problems with installing updates“. It will be automatically checked whether there are issues related to updates.

6. In the option „Restore hidden updates“ you will get the following:

 WS Updates 2008 EN Bild 7

Updates, which you did not install and which were hidden, will be shown in this list and you can decide whether you want to install them.

26Nov/150

How to reset root/Administrator password in Linux/Windows

First of all, please read the following important instructions about this tutorial:
Please note, during this tutorial you are going to advance deeply into your operating system, so we kindly ask you to be careful while running these commands. Furthermore, we ask for your understanding, that Contabo is not be liable for damages or data loss of your operating system.

Please be also informed, that this tutorial is not working on Dedicated Servers along with Windows operating system without a KVM over IP device. We kindly ask you to open a ticket at support@contabo.com if we should assist you.

This tutorial offers the opportunity to reset the system password for the "root" and "Administrator" users, so you should be able to logon to your server again in case you have lost or forgotten the password.

Please just go to your Customer Control Panel for performing a reboot of your VPS / Dedicated Server into the rescue mode. Therefore, you have to navigate to the "Your services" menu, followed by "Manage" -> "rescue mode".

(The login credentials of your customer control panel have been sent in our initial e-mail to your authorized e-mail address)

Kundenlogin2

Password reset for Linux:

1. List system partitions:

root@sysresccd /root % fdisk -l
....
Device     Boot     Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1  *         2048   961146879   480572416   83  Linux
/dev/sda2       961146880   976771071     7812096   82  Linux swap / Solaris
....

2. Mount system partitions:

root@sysresccd /root % mkdir /mnt/sda1
root@sysresccd /root % mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1

3. Now you can change to the mounted environment:

root@sysresccd /root % chroot /mnt/sda1 /bin/bash

4. Reset the root password:

root@sysresccd:/# passwd root
Enter new UNIX password: <new password>
Retype new UNIX password: <new password>
passwd: password updated successfully

5. The root password has been changed, please exit the rescue mode and reboot your server back to the operating system:

root@sysresccd:/# exit
exit
root@sysresccd /root % exitrescue
Server was set to boot from normal harddisk at the next boot!
Please enter "reboot" to reboot the system!
root@sysresccd /root % reboot

Now you should be able to login using the new password.

 

Password reset for Windows:

1. List system partitions:

root@sysresccd /root % fdisk -l
....
Device     Boot  Start       End   Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/vda1  *      2048    718847    716800   350M 27 Hidden NTFS WinRE
/dev/vda2       718848 629143551 628424704 299.7G  7 HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
....

2. Mount system partitions:

root@sysresccd /root % mkdir /mnt/vda2
root@sysresccd /root % ntfs-3g /dev/vda2 /mnt/vda2

Please note: If now an error message appears, please enter the following command before you are going to mount the system partition:

root@sysresccd /root % ntfsfix /dev/vda2

Mounting volume... OK
Processing of $MFT and $MFTMirr completed successfully.
Checking the alternate boot sector... OK
NTFS volume version is 3.1.
NTFS partition /dev/vda2 was processed successfully.

3. Now you can change to the system directory:

root@sysresccd /root % cd /mnt/vda2/Windows/System32/config

4. Print all system users:

root@sysresccd /root/mnt/vda2/Windows/System32/config % chntpw -l SAM

chntpw version 1.00 140201, (c) Petter N Hagen
Hive <SAM> name (from header): <\SystemRoot\System32\Config\SAM>
ROOT KEY at offset: 0x001020 * Subkey indexing type is: 666c <lf>
File size 262144 [40000] bytes, containing 8 pages (+ 1 headerpage)
Used for data: 302/27480 blocks/bytes, unused: 28/5032 blocks/bytes.

| RID -|---------- Username ------------| Admin? |- Lock? --|
| 01f4 | Administrator                  | ADMIN  |          |
| 01f5 | Guest                          |        | dis/lock |

5. Reset the Administrator password:

root@sysresccd /root/mnt/vda2/Windows/System32/config % chntpw SAM -u Administrator

chntpw version 1.00 140201, (c) Petter N Hagen
Hive <SAM> name (from header): <\SystemRoot\System32\Config\SAM>
ROOT KEY at offset: 0x001020 * Subkey indexing type is: 666c <lf>
File size 262144 [40000] bytes, containing 8 pages (+ 1 headerpage)
Used for data: 302/27504 blocks/bytes, unused: 28/5008 blocks/bytes.

================= USER EDIT ====================

RID     : 0500 [01f4]
Username: Administrator
fullname:
comment : Built-in account for administering the computer/domain
homedir :

00000220 = Administrators (which has 1 members)

Account bits: 0x0010 =
[ ] Disabled        | [ ] Homedir req.    | [ ] Passwd not req. |
[ ] Temp. duplicate | [X] Normal account  | [ ] NMS account     |
[ ] Domain trust ac | [ ] Wks trust act.  | [ ] Srv trust act   |
[ ] Pwd don't expir | [ ] Auto lockout    | [ ] (unknown 0x08)  |
[ ] (unknown 0x10)  | [ ] (unknown 0x20)  | [ ] (unknown 0x40)  |

Failed login count: 0, while max tries is: 0
Total  login count: 82

- - - - User Edit Menu:
1 - Clear (blank) user password
(2 - Unlock and enable user account) [seems unlocked already]
3 - Promote user (make user an administrator)
4 - Add user to a group
5 - Remove user from a group
q - Quit editing user, back to user select
Select: [q] > 1

Password cleared!
================= USER EDIT ====================

RID     : 0500 [01f4]
Username: Administrator
fullname:
comment : Built-in account for administering the computer/domain
homedir :

00000220 = Administrators (which has 1 members)

Account bits: 0x0010 =
[ ] Disabled        | [ ] Homedir req.    | [ ] Passwd not req. |
[ ] Temp. duplicate | [X] Normal account  | [ ] NMS account     |
[ ] Domain trust ac | [ ] Wks trust act.  | [ ] Srv trust act   |
[ ] Pwd don't expir | [ ] Auto lockout    | [ ] (unknown 0x08)  |
[ ] (unknown 0x10)  | [ ] (unknown 0x20)  | [ ] (unknown 0x40)  |

Failed login count: 0, while max tries is: 0
Total  login count: 82
** No NT MD4 hash found. This user probably has a BLANK password!
** No LANMAN hash found either. Try login with no password!

- - - - User Edit Menu:
1 - Clear (blank) user password
(2 - Unlock and enable user account) [seems unlocked already]
3 - Promote user (make user an administrator)
4 - Add user to a group
5 - Remove user from a group
q - Quit editing user, back to user select
Select: [q] > q

Hives that have changed:
#  Name
0  <SAM>
Write hive files? (y/n) [n] : y
0  <SAM> - OK

6. The Administrator password has been changed, you can check this as follows:

root@sysresccd /root/mnt/vda2/Windows/System32/config % chntpw -i SAM

===== chntpw Edit User Info & Passwords ====

| RID -|---------- Username ------------| Admin? |- Lock? --|
| 01f4 | Administrator                  | ADMIN  | *BLANK*  |
| 01f5 | Guest                          |        | dis/lock |

Please enter user number (RID) or 0 to exit: [1f4] 0

Please note: The *BLANK* entry indicates, that currently no Administrator password is set!

7. Exit the rescue mode and reboot your server back to the operating system:

root@sysresccd /root % exitrescue
Server was set to boot from normal harddisk at the next boot!
Please enter "reboot" to reboot the system!
root@sysresccd /root % reboot

8. Last of all, you can login to your server via VNC without password for setting a new password. Therefore, please choose one of the following options:

(The login credentials of your VNC access have been sent in our initial e-mail to your authorized e-mail address)

1st option:

Control panel > User accounts > User accounts > Manage accounts > Change account > Create password

Windows-PW setzen (klein)

2nd option:

Please open the command prompt on the desktop and enter the following command:

C:\Users\Administrator> net user Administrator <password>

Screenshot EN

A new password has been created, it is valid for the "Administrator" user account from now on.

Posted by: Benjamin | Tagged as: , , , , , No Comments
17Nov/150

Integration of the WebDAV feature of Webspace packages

With WebDAV, cPanel supports a helpful function to provision your data over a web service. It works similar to a cloud based data storage and this functionality is also integrated into our Webspace packages. To utilize this feature you will have to log into your cPanel and click on the 'Web Disk' button under the 'Files' section.

If you are unable to find it, we recommend to use the search box and enter 'Web Disk'.

WebDAV1ENG

You will be redirected to the Web Disk main account after clicking on the Web Disk button. This root-account is preconfigured and can be used right away. Username and password are the same as your cPanel login credentials for this account.

WebDAV2ENG

As seen in the following picture, you can create additional Web Disk accounts with custom logins. The default directory is '/', but for additional accounts we recommend to create extra folders for non-root users. You are able to set read/write permissions for the accounts just as you wanted.

WebDAV3ENG

Important note: If you are using a Windows operating system on your home computer and you do not want to use encryption, you will have to activate the Digest-Authentification to establish a connection on port 2077 without encryption. Our server also provides a signed SSL certificate to ensure a secure encrypted connection between your home computer and your Webspace package on port 2078, in this case no activation of the Digest-Authentification method is required.

To proceed click on 'Actions' for the corresponding account and in the following on 'Activate Web Disk'.

You will be redirected to a new screen and prompted to choose the operating system of your home computer, as seen in the following picture.

WebDAV4ENG

Example: If you have Windows® 8 installed, please choose 'Microsoft®-OS' and click on Windows® 8.

WebDAV5ENG

On the same screen, please click on the following button in your cPanel user interface to download the quick start script.

WebDAV6ENG

Run the downloaded script and log-in using your configured Web Disk account credentials at the login prompt.

WebDAV7ENG

A shortcut will be created automatically by the script on your desktop for your Web Disk access. As seen in the following picture, the connection is successfully established if you click the shortcut.

WebDAV8ENG

You are now able to move data between your home computer and your Web Disk space via drag and drop.

Example: test.txt

WebDAV9ENG

You can also see the copied data by logging into your cPanel and clicking on file management. You may browse to the corresponding folder to check if the copied files are there.

WebDAV10ENG

You are now able to copy data between your home computer and your Web Disk space.

Concluding Information: The transfer speed is dependant on your internet connection speed at home. The connection is established in encrypted mode between your local computer and our server.

Posted by: Mike | Tagged as: , , , , , , No Comments
28Sep/152

How to change the display language on Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016

Servers you order at Contabo will be installed in English language by default. If you want to change the display language the following guide will help you to perform this on your Windows Server step-by-step.

Please log in to your server via RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol), enter the control panel, and click on „Add a language“.

Controlpanel

An overview of currently installed languages appears.

Addalanguage

By clicking on „Add a language“, you will be redirected to the full list of available languages.

Addalanguage2

Choose the desired display language and click on „Add“. The chosen language will be shown in your language overview now. In our example German has been added.

Moveup

The language on top of this list will be the default one. Move your desired display language to the top position and click on „Options“. Windows will check the availability of the language pack automatically and afterwards you can click „Download and install language pack“. Once the installation has finished, you will see the message "Installation complete".

Downloadinstall

You can now reboot your server to activate the changes for your local user or you can apply the language changes for the welcome screen and new user accounts as well.

In order to apply the language changes system-wide for your welcome screen and new user accounts, please switch to the language overview again and click on „Advanced settings“. Now select „Apply language settings to the welcome screen, system accounts, and new user accounts“.

Advanced

In the menu which will open up next, please click on "Copy settings" and activate the checkboxes for copying your language settings to „Welcome screen and system account“ and / or to „New user accounts“:

Copysettings

After saving these settings, Windows will ask for a reboot which will complete the process of changing the language system-wide.

Posted by: Jan | Tagged as: , , , , 2 Comments
21Sep/150

How to change the display language on Windows Server 2008 R2

Servers you order at Contabo will be installed in English language by default. If you want to change the display language the following guide will help you to perform this on your Windows Server 2008 R2 step-by-step.

All steps should be performed on your server directly, if you are using Internet Explorer you may need to disable the "Enhanced Security" mode temporarily.

 

To change the language pack in Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 you need to download the desired language pack here.

Please choose the desired language from the dropdown menu. The website will be reloading and you will have to wait until this reload is finished since you will be downloading the English language pack by default otherwise. Once the website has switched to the language of your choice, click on "Download" (will now be shown in your chosen language).

Downloadsite
After the download has finished, you need to run the .exe-File.

The following window will open to update you about the installation status.

Installing
Once the installation has been completed, please enter the Control Panel of your server and click on "Change display language" in the section "Clock language and region".

Controlpanel2008
Choose the desired language in the dropdown menu and confrm with "Apply".

Language_dropdown

After you logged out and back in again Windows will be shown in the chosen language.

To modify the language system-wide also for the welcome screen and new user accounts, please enter the Control Panel again, and click on "Change display language". In the "Administrative" tab click on "Copy settings".

Confirm the checkboxes for copying your language settings to „Welcome screen and system accounts“ and / or to „New user accounts“.

Advanced2008
After saving these settings, Windows will ask for a reboot which will complete the process of changing the language system-wide.

 

Posted by: Jan | Tagged as: , , , No Comments
19Jun/150

Mounting of additional hard drives in Windows

In this tutorial, we are going to mount an additional hard drive in Windows. As you may notice, we will do so in Windows Server 2012, but the procedure is basically the same with Windows Server 2008.

At first, we need to open a menu by right-clicking the Start button:

_2015-05-28_18-14-12

We must select Disk Management to open the Disk Management service. If Windows identifies a new hard drive, a pop-up menu opens:

mbrgpt

For volumes smaller than 2 TB, we choose MBR, for larger disks, we select GPT. As the hard drive in our example only has a capacity of 100 GB, we'll go with MBR here. By clicking OK, the chosen partition table will be written to the hard disk. After that procedure, we will be sent to the main menu of the Disk Management service. Alternatively, one can reach this overview via Control Panel => Computer Management.

haupt

As we can see here, our new hard drive is listed as Disk 1. But before we can use it for storing data, we need to partition and format it. Therefore, we right-click the rectangle next to the box which says Disk 1 and choose New Simple Volume.

haupt2

A wizard opens. It is quite self-explanatory and you can't do anything wrong by using the pre-selected and suggested values. Per default, the wizard uses the whole disk capacity for the new partition and formats it with the file system NTFS, which is recommended for Windows. Of course, you are free to change those settings, but in our example, we go along with them.

ntfs

The name of our new partition is STORAGE, but of course you can name it as you wish.

Once you went through the wizard, the new hard drive will be ready to use. It will also be visible in the Explorer:

explorer